Ostomy is a surgical procedure creating “STOMA” to provide an outlet for urine or motion when intestines or urinary bladder are damaged due to certain diseases or injuries.
“STOMA” is a permanent or temporary opening made in the abdominal wall it is called “ILEOSTOMY” when ILEUM (part of small intestine) is brought out as stoma, “colostomy” when the COLON (large intestine) is brought out as stoma, “UROSTOMY” when stoma is made for outlet of urine.
ANATOMY OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT
Gastro intestinal tract starts with mouth and continues as OESOPHAGUS (23-26cms). STOMACH, SMALLINTESTINE (6-7mts), LARGE INTESTINE (COLON) (1.5-1.8mts), RECTUM (23-26cms) and ends with ANUS.Anal sphincter controls the outflow.
PHYSIOLOGY OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT
Food is masticated and mixed with some enzymes and saliva in the mouth and passed into the stomach through oesophagus. In the stomach it will be further acted upon by acid and certain enzymes and made as “CHYME” which then passes into the small intestine where maximum absorption of all important ingredients takes place.
The undigested and left off semi solid mass is pushed in to large intestine, where maximum absorption of water is done and the shape of solid waste with foul smell is made. This is propelled by peristaltic movement in to the rectum which is then discharged out through anus under the voluntary control of anal sphincter.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF GENITO URINARY TRACT
The two KIDNEYS in the abdomen are connected to the urinary bladder with two URETERS. The bladder is connected with URETHRA and urethral orifice or penis. The urine formed in the kidneys passes through the ureters and collects in urinary bladder.
The urine thus collected will be discharged out under the control of SPHINCTER located at the bottom of bladder.
Now a day’s one piece and two piece appliances are available from different companies. They are safe and dependable. One can lead an almost normal life provided proper selection of appliance and proper counseling are provided.
Counseling is a must at all stages starting from diagnosis of malignancy, before during and after each type of treatment (surgery, radiation & chemotherapy) and lifelong according to need. Proper and prompt counseling by a suitable counselor /ostomy consultant helps not only to understand the gravity of the situation but also to have moral courage to face any consequence to lead and almost normal life.
LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST
With any type of ostomy one can lead an almost normal life provided he/she takes care of his her other diseases have regular checkups, take proper diet, have appropriate exercise and prompt counseling by a suitable counselor or ostomy consultant.